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Lecture 6- Alterations in circulatory function

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What are the components of the circulatory system?
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Heart Blood Blood vessels
Describe the job of the heart.
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Serves as pump to propel blood through vessels.
What component of the circulatory system is responsible for carrying blood to tissues?
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Blood vessels
What are the five (5) primary functions of the circulatory system?
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1. Deliver O2 and nutrients needed for metabolic processes to the tissues. 2. Carries waste productus of cellular metabolism to excretory organs for elimination 3. Circulates electrolytes and hormones needed to regulate body function. 4. Transports core heat to periphery where it can be dissipated in the external environment (aids in temp. regulation) 5. Transports immune substances that contribute to body's defense mechanisms (cytokines, etc.)
What potential problem occurs when there is a lack of O2 and nutrients delivered to the tissues?
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Cell death
What is the function of the atria?
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1. Collection chamber for blood returning to heart. 2. Assists in filling ventricles (ventricle filling pumps)
What are two (2) pathological changes that impair function of the atria?
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1. myocardial infarction 2. dysrhythmias (abnormal rhythm)
Define dysrhythmia.
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Abnormal rhythm
If the atria have impaired funttion, what nursing problems would you expect to see?
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Decreased cardiac output will result if atria not filling ventricles. Standing blood in atria will form clots. Clots being pumped to body (emboli) cause occlusions (ie. strokes)
What is the function of the ventricles?
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To pump blood out of the heart.
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What is the function of the Right ventricle?
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Maintains pulmonary circulation, moves blood through lungs so it becomes oxygenated.
Which ventricle is responsible for maintaining systemic circulation?
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Left ventricle perfuses body tissues except lungs.
Can blood backup at the point of the atria? Why?
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Yes, there can be a back up of blood at the point of the atria because there are no valves at the entrance of the atria.
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What nursing problems occur when there is impaired function of the right heart?
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Decreased right heart function results in systemic venous edema.
When blood does not enter the lungs to become oxygenated and release CO2, what part is probably experiencing impaired function?
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Right ventricle.
Explain the cause of pulmonary venous system congestion.
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Decreased left ventricle function fails to move blood from the left atrium. Left atrium has standing blood causing back up at the entrance to the atria, resulting in blood remaining in the lungs.
What is the function of the Left ventricle?
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Maintains systemic circulation (perfuses body tissues).
What predisposing or causative factors might impair the function of the ventricles?
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Myocardial infaction, dysrhythmias, etc.
What is the function of the heart valves?
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Ensure unidirectional flow through heart chambers.
  
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