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Lecture 8 &9 Respiratory

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What is the function of the respiratory system?
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To support metabolic functions of body cells by providing means of gas exchange
What do the upper and lower airways consist of :
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Upper- nasal passages, mouth, pharynx, larynx Lower- trachea, bronchi, terminal bronchioles
What nursing problem would you expect if there were impaired function of the mucociliary blanket?
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Foreign substances would enter the airway (including bacteria) leading to infection.
What could impair the function of the mucocilliary blanket?
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smoking breathing unhumidified air an increase or decrease in oxygen levels
Swelling of the respiratory mucosa could lead to ____________ of the airway and problems with oxygenation.
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constriction
____________________ can be caused by allergic reaction or electoyte imbalance. It results in the constriction/obstruction of the airway adn problems with O2.
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Bronchospasm.
What is purpose does the inner layer of the airway serve?
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Protective defense mechanism. "mucocilliary blanket" traps dust and foreign particles in mucus and cilia moves mucus upward.
What is the difference between type I alveolar cells and type II alveolar cells.
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Type I- is the site of gas exchange TypeII- produce surfactant which decreases surface tension within alveoli facilitating lung inflation.
Wht nurisng problem would occure if there were damage to the Type I alveolar cells?
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Impaired gas exchange
Atelectasis is the collapse of the alveoli. Decreased deep breathing/chest expansion, inhalation of toxic gases (smoke, anesthesia), or oxygen toxicity might cause this by:
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Impairing Type II surfactant cells
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If there are problems with the alveolar macrophages, what might you expect to see?
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Infection/Inflammation issues as might be caused by smoking or immune disorders.
Mr. Smith c/o a stabbing sharp pain in his chest when he coughs or breaths deeply, what common disorder does this describe?
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Pleuritis (pleurisy)
The pleura maintains _____________pressure in the airways and alveoli.
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Negative
An important function of the pleura other than maintaining negative pressure in the airways and alveoli is...
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decreasing friction between chest wall and lung during inspiration/expiration
pneumothorax
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Collapsed lung because negative vacuum is broken by presence of air. May be caused by traumatic injury.
What is lung compliance?
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The ease with which the lungs can be inflated.
Explain how respiratory pressures affect movement of air in and out of lungs.
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Air moves out of lungs r/t changes in pressure btween the atmosphere and airways (moves from area of greater pressure to lower pressure. a. inspiration- size of the chest cavity increases r/t to contraction of respiratory muscles. Pressure in cavity lower than atmospheric pressure so air moves into lungs. b. Expiration- size of the chest cavity decreases resulting in higher pressure than atmospheric pressure. Air moves out of the lungs. Essentially the size of the chest cavity determines the movement of air in or out.
The function of "muscles of inspiration is to increase the chest cavity. These muscles are:
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Diaphragm -expansion from top to bottom External intercostal muscles, scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles- expansion of cavity from side to side.
What potential problem might decrease the efficiency of the respiratory muscles?
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Spinal cord injury @ C4 or above.
What things might increase compliance?
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Lung loses elastic recoil in empasima- air has trouble moving out becsause lung is difficult to deflate. Old air sits in the lung preventing new air from entering the lung. Good increase of compliance results from enough surfactant and exercise increased compliance.
  
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