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Quantitative Nursing ResearchFoundations of Nursing Research-5th Ed.

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________ occurs when study results attributed to the experimental treatment or manipulation of the independent variable are, in actuality, due to the differences of the subjects prior to manipulation of the independent variable.
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Selection bias
______ is an internal validity threat that occurs when some event besides the experimental treatment occurs during the course of the study which influences the dependent variable.
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History
How is history, as a threat to internal validity, controlled for?
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Inclusion of at least on simultaneous control or comparison group in the study and randomization of the participants
How is the threat to internal validity, maturation, controlled for?
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By use of a comparison group
_______ is a term to describe the influence of pretesting or knowledge of baseline data has on posttest scores in an experimental study.
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Testing
_________ is a term used to describe the difference between a pretest and posttest measurements of a study that is due to changes in the accuracy of the assessment tool or judging ratings, rather than as a result of the experimental treatment.
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Instrumentation Change
How is the threat to validity, instrumentation change, controlled for?
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Training sessions for judges and trial runs to check for fatigue factors, as well as calibrating instrumentation.
__________ occurs when the dropout rate is different for the control group than it is for the experimental group.
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Mortality
What research design can prevent mortality?
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None, participants can never be forced to remain in a study.
How is Mortality different from Attrition?
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Attrition refers to participant drop-out, mortality refers to a dropout rate that is different from a control group than the experimental group.
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How can the threat to internal validity, mortality, be controlled for?
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The researcher can try to establish a relationhsip with study participants and help them recognize the importance of their participation in the study.
What are the three identified threats to external validity?
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Hawthorne effect, experimenter effect and the reactive effects of the pretest/measurement effect.
The ________ effect occurs when study participants respond in a certain manner because they are aware they are being observed.
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Hawthorne effect
The _________ effect can be a threat to both internal and external validity.
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Hawthorne effect & reactive effects of the pretest
How can the Hawthorne effect be controlled for?
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By using a double-blind experiment design.
In a ________ study, neither the researcher or the participants are aware of which group (experimental or control) the participants are assigned to.
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Double blind study
The _______ effect occurs when researcher characteristics or behaviors influence subject behaviors. Facial expressions, clothing, body build, etc. are all things identified as possible of influencing participants.
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Experimenter effect
The _________ effect describes when the characteristics of an interviewer (like gender, dress, jewelry worn, etc.) has an effect on the respondent's answers in nonexperiemental studies.
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Rosenthal effect
What is the major difference between the experimental effect and the Rosenthal effect?
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Experimenter effect occurs in experimental studies. The Rosenthal effect occurs in nonexperimental study designs.
__________ is a threat to external validity that occurs when subjects have been sensitized to a treatment through taking the pretest.
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Reactive effects of the pretest/measurement effect
During an experiment on weight loss, the researcher weighs all the participants and tells them their starting weight. At the end of the study, the researcher determines each of the participants lost weight. What is the threat to external validity in this situation?
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Reactive effects of the pretest/measurement effect, knowledge of the pretest results may impact the posttest results.
  
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