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Quantitative Nursing ResearchFoundations of Nursing Research-5th Ed.

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During an experiment on weight loss, the researcher weighs all the participants and tells them their starting weight. At the end of the study, the researcher determines each of the participants lost weight. What is the threat to external validity in this situation?
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Reactive effects of the pretest/measurement effect, knowledge of the pretest results may impact the posttest results.
How is the internal validity threat, Testing, different from the external validity threat, Reactive effects of the pretest?
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Testing occurs if the pretest or baseline knowledge is the cause of the results on the posttest, whereas Reactive effect is the catalyst for bringing out the results found on the posttest.
How can a researcher know for sure if a pretest threat has occurred?
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They probably can't
In research notation, R =
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Random assignment of subjects to groups
In research notation, O=
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Observation measurement of the dependent variable
In research notation, X=
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Experimental treatment or intervention
__________ is a procedure that ensures that each subject has an equal chance of being assigned or placed in any of the groups in an experimental study.
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Random assignment
How is random assignment typically done?
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It is typically computer generated
What are the three broad categories of experimental design?
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True experimental Quasi-experimental Pre-experimental
In the following research notation, what indicates the independent variable and what indicates the independent variable? RO1XO2 RO1 O2
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The dependent variable is O1/O2 (what is measured before and after the treatment) The independent variable is X
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The type of experiemental design that allows a researcher the most control over the research situation...
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True Experiment
Only with ______ experimental design can causality be inferred with any degree of confidence.
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True experimental
What are the three criteria for true experimental design?
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-The researcher manuipulates the experimental variables -At least one experimental and one comparison group are included in the study -Subjects are randomly assigned to either the experimental or the comparison group
_________ means the independent/experimental variable is controlled by the researcher.
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Manipulate
A _______ group indicates a group in an experimental study that does not receive the experimental treatment.
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Control group
A ______ group is any group in an experimental study that either receives no treatment or a treatment that is not thought to be as effective as the experimental treatment.
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Comparison
What are identified as the three types of True Experimental design?
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-Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design -Posttest only Control Group design -Solomon four group design
Which type of true experimental design is the most the frequently used?
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Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
In research notation, the following represents what type of true experimental design? RO1XO2 RO1 O2
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Pretest (O1) Posttest (O2) Control Group (RO1 O2) design
What is the advantage to using a pretest-posttest control group design?
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It controls for all threats to internal validity
What is the disadvantage to using a pretest-posttest control group experimental design?
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The external threat, reactive effects of the pretest, will always be present
  
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