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Quantitative Nursing ResearchFoundations of Nursing Research-5th Ed.

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What is the disadvantage to using a pretest-posttest control group experimental design?
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The external threat, reactive effects of the pretest, will always be present
What type of true experiment is indicated by the research notation below? RXO1 R O1
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Posttest only control group design R (randomized) X (treatment/intervention) O1 (observation/posttest) R O1 (control group)
The _________ true experiment design is considered a superior design because it is easier to carry out and has greater generalizability of results.
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Post-test only control group design
Random assignment is used to ensure _______ of the groups involved in an experiment.
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Equality of the groups
The use of a large sample size ensures _________ of an experiment.
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effectiveness of the random assignment
There are four groups in the Solomon Four Group Design (hence the name). Describe the four groups...
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Group 1: One Experimental group and one control group that both get pretested Group 2: Experimental group 1 and experimental group 2, both get treatment Group 3: Control group 1 and control group 2 receive no/current treatment Group 4: All participants (4 groups) get posttested
Explain the following scientific notation: RO1XO2 RO1 O2 RXO2 RO2
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Solomon four group design Line one-Experimental group, pretested/posttested: Randomized (R), Pretest (O1), Treatment (X), Posttest (O2) Line two-control group, pretested/posttested: Randomized (R), Pretest (O1), Posttest (O2) Line three-Experimental group, no pretest: Randomized (R), Treatment (X), Posttest (O2) Line four-control group, no pretest: Randomized (R), Posttest (O2)
The ________ is considered to be the most prestigious experimental design.
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Solomon four group design
What are the advantages of the Solomon four group design?
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It controls for internal and external validity threats; reactive effects of the pretest is controlled for by pretesting a control/experimental group and having a control/experimental group that isn't pretested. Changes can be strongly associated with the experimental treatment.
What are the disadvantages of the Solomon Four Group Design?
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Requires a large sample and statistical analysis is complicated.
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How many Nursing studies have been performed using the Solomon Four Group design in the past ten years?
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One
______ experimental designs are those in which there is either no comparison group or subjects are not randomly assigned.
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Quasi-experimental design
What are the advantages of the Quasi-Experimental design?
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The experiments are typically conducted in a naturally occurring groups, allowing for more real world approximation.
Nonequivalent control group design and time series experimental designs are types of ________ designs.
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Quasi-Experimental
What is the difference between a pretest-posttest control group design and a nonequivalent control group design?
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In the nonequivalent control group design, there is no randomization of subjects
Explain the following research notation: O1XO2 O1 O2
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A nonequivalent research design, Experimental group: Pretest (O1), Intervention (X), Posttest (O2) Control group: Pretest (O1) Posttest (O2)
What are the threats to internal validity when using a quasi-experimental research design?
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History, Testing, Maturation, and Instrumentation Change and Selection Bias
What is the biggest threat to internal validity from a quasi-experimental research design?
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Selection Bias-the groups used may not have been similar at the beginning of the study
How can selection bias be controlled for in a quasi-experimental study?
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By testing statistically for differences in the groups (like education levels, ages, etc.)
What type of design is indicated by the following notation? O1O2O3XO4O5O6
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Time series design
What are the greatest internal threats when using a time series research design?
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History or testing
  
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