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PsychopharmacologyPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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____________ are measurable, specific symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are expected to improve with a pharmacological treatment.
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Target symptoms
The unwanted effects of a medication are called?
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Side effects
Unwanted effects of a medication that causes serious physiological consequences are called?
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Adverse reactions
What is the primary target of most psychiatric medications?
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The CNS at the cellular, synaptic level at four sites: receptors, ion channels, enzymes and carrier proteins.
Substances that initiate the same reponse as a chemical normally present in the body is referred to as ___________.
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An agonist
Stubstances that block the response of a given receptor to a chemical present in the body is referred to as __________.
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An antagonist
The ability of a drug to bind to a receptor with precise qualities is referred to as?
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Selectivity
The degree of attraction or strength of the bond between a drug and its biologic target is referred to as?.
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Affinity
A ________ bond is formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons. This type of bond is commonly seen in monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
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Covalent
Drugs with _________ are often called irreversible because they are long lasting and can take several weeks to resolve.
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Covalent
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A drug's ability to interact with a given receptor is its ___________, or the ability to produce a response once it becomes attached to a receptor.
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Intrinsic activity
What three properties do all agonists have?
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Selectivity, affinity and intrinsic activity
What two properties do all antagonists have?
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Selectivity and affinity (they have no intrinsic activity because they produce no biologic response by attaching to a receptor).
_________ are a membrane protein that transports a specific molecule across the cell membrane after recognizing a site specific to the type of molecule to be transported. Usually a neurotransmitter is transported back to the presynaptic nerve once it has
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Carrier proteins/uptake receptors
What do medications that act on carrier proteins/uptake receptors typically do?
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Medications block or inhibit the transport of molecules allowing for increased activity of that molecule.
________ is the ability of a drug to produce a response and is considered when a drug is selected for a specific condition.
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Efficacy
_______ refers to the dose of drug required to produce a specific effect.
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Potency
A rapid decrease in a drug's effects that may develop within a few minutes of exposure to the drug is referred to as?
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Desensitization
_________ is a gradual decrease in the action of a drug at a given dose or concentration in the blood result in loss of therapeutic effect of the drug.
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Tolerance
Loss of therapeutic effectiveness of a drug that worked previously due to tolerance is referred to as?.
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Treatment refractoriness
  
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